Asthma involves many pathophysiologic factors. Factors including bronchiolar inflammation with airway constriction and resistance that manifests as episodes of coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. So the knowledge of asthma pathophysiology helps you understand how the condition is diagnosed and treated. In the recent researches it has observed that asthma is truly an inflammatory disease of airways. It is characterized by increasing numbers of eosinophils, T cells and mast cells in the airway mucosa. And by the desquamation of the airway epithelium. There is infiltration by inflammatory cells in the airways of an asthma
patient, with vasodilation.
Eosinophilic infiltration is highly characteristic of asthma. It has seen in both allergic and non-allergic types of disease.
A described study on asthma pathophysiology with focused on asthma signs and symptoms is here under. Having also a brief note on asthma symptoms. The article is reviewed by consultant Pulmonologist having active clinical practice.
What is Asthma?
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. It has no known cure, but by identifying triggers and developing a proper management plan, asthmatics can lead a healthy, active life. Asthma aﬀects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood.
What causes asthma?
Asthma has a strong genetic component. If you have asthma, others in your family may have asthma as well. Allergens, irritants (such as cigarette smoke and pollution), respiratory infections, weather changes and exercise can trigger asthma symptoms. However, whatever one’s triggers are, the underlying lung problem of inflammation remains the same. Allergic asthma is triggered by allergic reactions to allergens such as pet dander, dust or dust mite, mold or pollen. Sometimes the asthma may only occur during the pollen seasons. Identifying your specific allergic triggers is essential to managing your asthma.
Exercise-induced asthma is triggered by exercise or physical activity.
Nocturnal asthma can occur with any asthmatic. Asthma signs and symptoms will often increase or worsen at night.
Asthma signs and symptoms
When you breathe in, air passes from your nose and mouth to your lungs through a system of tubes referred to as airways or bronchial tubes. This is much like a tree trunk and branches. The trunk is the windpipe, which branches oﬀ to smaller airways called bronchi. People with asthma experience extensive narrowing of the airways throughout both lungs, resulting in asthma signs and symptoms that often include:
Shortness of breath
A high percentage of asthma patients suﬀer from allergies. Up to 80% of childhood asthma patients and 70% of adult asthmatics have some allergies. Controlling allergies is the first step to controlling asthma. In addition, there are two types of medicine for the treatment of asthma.
Types of Medicines
1 Rescue/Reliever Medicines provide quick relief of sudden symptoms. Rescue medications start to alleviate the symptoms of asthma within a few minutes by relaxing the muscle spasms within the airways. The most commonly prescribed medication for rescue of asthma symptoms is Salbutamol. Side eﬀects can include tremor, rapid heart rate and nervousness, all of which dissipate within a few minutes of taking the medication.
2 Controller Medicines provide long-term control of asthma and prevent future symptoms. Your doctor will determine if the frequency and severity of your or your child’s symptoms require the use of a maintenance medication. All of the controller medications work by reducing the inflammation in the airways. By reducing swelling, the lungs are stronger and a patient is much less likely to have asthma symptoms.
Furthermore, the most commonly prescribed medication in maintenance control of asthma is an inhaled steroid. An inhaler can given for this purpose. Or via the nebulizer in small children. These medications treat the inflammation within the lungs, the primary problem in asthma. Corticosteroid medications have developed a scary reputation, but especially when inhaled, are extremely safe and eﬀective for controlling asthma inflammation.
Finally, the best way to prevent an asthma episode, or attack, is to follow your treatment plan. Learn your triggers and avoid them. Take your allergy and asthma medicines when you should. Use your quick-acting medicine as soon as you start to notice symptoms.
Above all many people live normal lives with asthma if it’s properly managed. With a good treatment plan and guidance from your doctor, you can still do much of what you enjoy. For example, many professional athletes have asthma.