What is Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter Pylori Infection Causes

Helicobacter Pylori (H.Pylori) was first discovered in 1982 by Australian scientists Barry Marshall and Robin Warren. It is a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium in the stomach. The relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and development of gastric cancer is well established now. However, gastric cancer is sometimes discovered after successful eradication of H. pylori. In this article, you will find a brief study on Helicobacter pylori infection causes, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis.

What is Helicobacter Pylori?


Helicobacter Pylori is associated with gastritis. Substantial evidence indicates that it causes peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis. Furthermore, it is also involved in the development of gastric cancer.

Also, the International Agency for Research on Cancers classified H. pylori as carcinogenic to humans.

More than 50% of the world’s population harbour H.Pylori in their upper gastrointestinal tract.

Helicobacter Pylori Infection Causes

There is no single pathway has been clearly identified for helicobacter pylori infection causes. Hence, the person-to-person route is considered the most likely transmission route. Most common three possible routes of transmission from the stomach of one person to another are presented below.


The first, and most frequent, mode of transmission is iatrogenic. In this way tubes or endoscopes that have been in contact with the gastric mucosa of one individual are being used for another patient. However, in quantitative terms, the iatrogenic route is considered to be marginal.


The second possible route is fecal–oral. Main causes of faecal-oral transmission include lack of adequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices. Faecal contamination of food is another form of faecal-oral transmission.


The third possible route of transmission is oral–oral. The use of the same spoon by both mother and child also intimate the oral–oral contact. Spouses and children of individuals infected with H. pylori were more often seropositive than spouses and children of non-infected individuals.


There are two types of treatments recommended for H.Pylori infection. One is a combination of bismuth and antibiotics. The other is a combination of a proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotics. Furthermore, vaccines are currently being tested in animal models.

How H.Pylori Diagnosed?

Endoscopy & Invasive:                                                        

Molecular Biology

Rapid Urease Test (RUT)





Stool Antigen Test (SAT)

C13/14-Urea Breath Test

In conclusion, here is suggested Urea Breath Test (UBT) for diagnosing of Helicobacter Pylori.

Why Choose UBT?

The urea breath test is a simple, non-invasive and accurate diagnostic technology for detecting H.pylori. Furthermore, it is for diagnosing active H.pylori infection. It is also for monitoring the therapeutic effect of H.pylori eradication.

H. pylori bacterium produces an enzyme called urease. It breaks urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. In urea breath test(UBT) a tablet/powder containing urea is swallowed and the amount of exhaled carbon dioxide is measured. This indicates the presence of H. pylori in the stomach. So, the measurement of carbon dioxide determines the presence of H.Pylori in the urea breath test.

In conclusion, gastric cancers discovered after successful eradication of H. pylori. Clinical findings showed that, even after successful eradication of H. pylori, a careful endoscopic examination should be performed in cases of early gastric cancer or gastric ulcer.

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