Myocardial infarction symptoms

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION SYMPTOMS

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack occurs when blood flow stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. The article is fully described on Myocardial Infarction symptoms, risk factors and prevention.

That is to say worldwide, about 15.9 million Myocardial Infarction occurred in 2015. More than 3 million people had an ST elevation MI (major heart attack). And more than 4 million had an NSTEMI (minor heart attack). STEMIs occur about twice as often in men as women. About one million people have an MI each year in the United States. In the developed world the risk of death in those who have had a STEMI is about 10 percent.

Myocardial Infarction Symptoms:

Chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back neck or jaw can be the Myocardial infarction symptoms. Often it is in the centre or the left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired. About 30 percent of people have typical symptoms like dizziness, blackout, epigastric discomfort and syncope. However, you must note that people may experience different symptoms and the different severity of symptoms while experiencing a heart attack. 

Women more often have atypical symptoms than men. Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.

“Silent” myocardial infarction can happen without any symptoms at all. These cases can be discovered later on through electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests and echocardiography or at autopsy after a person has died. Such silent myocardial infarction represents between 22% and 64% of all infarction and is more common in the elderly, in those with diabetes mellitus and after heart transplantation.

In short, “Silent” myocardial infarction can happen without any symptoms at all. These cases can be discovered later on through electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests and echocardiography or at autopsy after a person has died

Risk Factors:

High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and high blood sugar level, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake, chronic kidney disease, family history, old age and stress can be the risk factors.

Complication:

Heart failure, arrhythmia, heart block, pericardial effusion, syncope and finally sudden death

Diagnosis:

ECG, Echocardiography, blood test (CKMB, troponin), coronary angiography.

Treatment:

Oxygen, pain relief, antiplatelet(aspirin, clopidogrel), anticoagulation (heparin), revascularization (thrombolytic or PCI or CABG).

Causes of Acute Myocardial Infarction

LDL or Bad CholesterolLow-density lipoprotein (LDL) that normally called bad cholesterol is one of the major cause of blockage in the arteries. 

Saturated Fats: Saturated fats may also cause arterial blockage by increasing the number of bad cholesterols (LDL).

Prevention:

  • Lifestyle modification like regular brisk exercise for 30 to 45 minutes daily
  • Weight reduction keeping BMI 18-24.9
  • Smoking cessation
  • Alcohol reduction
  • Mediterranean diet

Rick Factor Modification:

  • Good control of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Dyslipidemia
  • Compliance with medication
  • Regular follow up
  • Patient education

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